[These definitions are based on Republic Act No. 7042, also known as the Foreign Investments Act of 1991, as amended by Republic Act No. 8179, as well as the Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 7042.]
A higher degree or form of technology than what is domestically available and needed for the development of certain industries as subject to guidelines of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Its introduction into the country through foreign investments under the terms and conditions of the Foreign Investments Act of 1991 must be linked to its appropriateness and adaptability to local conditions with a view towards eventual transfer and applicability including the upgrading of the indigenous technology available.
Filipino personnel hired and engaged under the control and supervision of the applicant investor/employer in the production of goods or performance of services. Excluded from this definition are personnel hired as casual, seasonal, learner, apprentice or any employee of subcontractor or those under fixed term employment.
The phrase “doing business” shall include soliciting orders, service contracts, opening offices, whether called “liaison” offices or branches; appointing representatives or distributors domiciled in the Philippines or who in any calendar year stay in the country for a period or periods totalling one hundred eighty (180) days or more; participating in the management, supervision or control of any domestic business, firm, entity or corporation in the Philippines; and any other act or acts that imply a continuity of commercial dealings or arrangements, and contemplate to that extent the performance of acts or works, or the exercise of some of the functions normally incident to, and in progressive prosecution of, commercial gain or of the purpose and object of the business organization:
However, the phrase “doing business” shall not be deemed to include mere investment as a shareholder by a foreign entity in domestic corporations duly registered to do business, and/or the exercise of rights as such investor; nor having a nominee director or officer to represent its interests in such corporation; nor appointing a representative or distributor domiciled in the Philippines which transacts business in its own name and for its own account.
Domestic market enterprise
An enterprise which products goods for sale, or renders services to the domestic market entirely or if exporting a portion of its output fails to consistency export at least sixty percent (60%) thereof.
The volume or the Philippine port F.O.B. peso value, determined from invoices, bills of lading, inward letters of credit, loading certificates, and other commercial documents, of products exported directly by an export enterprise or the value of services including tourism sold by service-oriented enterprises to non-resident foreigners or the net selling price of export products sold by an export enterprise to another export enterprise that subsequently exports the same; Provided, That sales of export products to another export enterprise shall only be deemed exports when actually exported by the latter, as evidenced by loading certificates or similar commercial documents; and Provided, finally, that without actual exportation, the following shall be considered constructively exported for purposes of the Act: (1) sales of products to bonded manufacturing warehouses of export enterprises; (2) sales of products to export processing zone enterprises; (3) sales of products to export enterprises operating bonded trading warehouses supplying raw materials used in the manufacture of export products; and (4) sales of products to foreign military bases, diplomatic missions and other agencies and/or instrumentalities granted tax immunities of locally manufactured, assembled or repacked products whether paid for in foreign currency or pesos funded from inwardly remitted foreign currency.
Sales of locally manufactured or assembled goods for household and personal use to Filipinos abroad and other non-residents of the Philippines as well as returning overseas Filipinos under the Internal Export Program of the Government and paid for in convertible foreign currency inwardly remitted through the Philippine banking system shall also be considered exports.
An enterprise wherein a manufacturer, processor or service (including tourism) enterprise exports sixty percent (60%) or more of its output, or wherein a trader purchases products domestically and exports sixty percent (60%) or more of such purchases.
(1) the percentage share of the volume or peso value of goods exported to the total volume or value of goods sold in any taxable year if the export enterprise is engaged in manufacturing or processing;
(2) the percentage share of the peso value of services sold to foreigners to total earnings or receipts from the sale of its services from all sources in any taxable year if the export enterprise is service-oriented; Value of services sold shall refer to the peso value of all services rendered by an export enterprise to foreigners that are paid for in foreign currency and/or pesos funded from inwardly remitted foreign currency as properly documented by the export enterprise; or
(3) the percentage share of the volume or peso value of goods exported to the total volume or value of goods purchased domestically in any taxable year if the export enterprise is engaged in merchandise trading.
One which is formed, organized or existing under laws other than those of the Philippines.
Branch office of a foreign company carries out the business activities of the head office and derives income from the host country.
Representative or liaison office deals directly with the clients of the parent company but does not derive income from the host country and is fully subsidized by its head office. It undertakes activities such as but not limited to information dissemination and promotion of the company’s products as well as quality control of products.
An equity investment made by a non-Philippine national in the form of foreign exchange and/or other assets actually transferred to the Philippines and duly registered with the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) which shall assess and appraise the value of such assets other than foreign exchange.
An equity investment made by a non-Philippine national; Provided, however, that for purposes of determining foreign ownership, peso investments made by non-Philippine nationals shall be considered; Provided, further, that only foreign investments in the form of foreign exchange and/or other assets actually transferred to the Philippines and duly registered with the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) and profits derived therefrom can be repatriated; and Provided, finally, That, for purposes of Section 8 of the Act, and Rule VIII, Section 6 of these Rules and Regulations, Existing Foreign Investment shall mean an equity investment made by a non-Philippine national duly registered with the SEC or the Bureau of Trade Regulation and Consumer Protection (BTRCP) in the form of foreign exchange and/or other assets transferred to the Philippines.
Foreign Investments Negative List
A list of areas of economic activity whose foreign ownership is limited to a maximum of forty percent (40%) of the outstanding capital stock in the case of a corporation or capital in the case of partnership.
Former natural-born Filipinos
Those who have lost Philippine citizenship but were previously citizens of the Philippines falling in either of the following categories: (a) from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship; or (b) by having elected Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority, if born before 17 January 1973, of Filipino mothers. [See Land Ownership of Former Natural-Born Filipinos]
Equity participation in any enterprise organized or existing under the laws of the Philippines. It includes both original and additional investments, whether made directly as in stock subscription, or indirectly through the transfer of equity from one investor to another as in stock purchase. Ownership of bonds (including income bonds), debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness does not qualify as investment.
The purchase of stock options or stock warrants is not an investment until the holder thereof exercises his option and actually acquires stock from the corporation.
Two or more entities, whether natural or juridical, one of which must be a Philippine national, combining their property, money, efforts, skills or knowledge to carry out a single business enterprise for profit, which is duly registered with the SEC as a corporation or partnership.
Refers to Foreign Investments Negative List.
The export enterprise’s total sales in a taxable year, The term sales shall refer to value in case of heterogeneous products and volume in case of homogeneous products.
Heterogeneous products shall refer to products of different kinds and characteristics as well as to those of the same kind but with various categories using different units of measurement.
Homogeneous products shall refer to products of the same kind or category using a common unit of measurement.
Paid-in equity capital
The total investment in a business that has been paid-in in a corporation or partnership or invested in a single proprietorship, which may be in cash or in property. It shall also refer to inward remittance or assigned capital in the case of foreign corporations.
A citizen of the Philippines or a domestic partnership or association wholly owned by citizens of the Philippines; or a corporation organized under the laws of the Philippines of which at least sixty percent (60%) of the capital stock outstanding and entitled to vote is owned and held by citizens of the Philippines or a corporation organized abroad and registered as doing business in the Philippine under the Revised Corporation Code of which one hundred percent (100%) of the capital stock outstanding and entitled to vote is wholly owned by Filipinos or a trustee of funds for pension or other employee retirement or separation benefits, where the trustee is a Philippine national and at least sixty percent (60%) of the fund will accrue to the benefit of Philippine nationals; Provided, that where a corporation and its non-Filipino stockholders own stocks in a Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) registered enterprise, at least sixty percent (60%) of the capital stock outstanding and entitled to vote of each of both corporations must be owned and held by citizens of the Philippines and at least sixty percent (60%) of the members of the Board of Directors of each of both corporations must be citizens of the Philippines, in order that the corporation shall be considered a Philippine national.
Compliance with the required Filipino ownership of a corporation shall be determined on the basis of outstanding capital stock whether fully paid or not, but only such stocks which are generally entitled to vote are considered.
For stocks to be deemed owned and held by Philippine citizens or Philippine nationals, mere legal title is not enough to meet the required Filipino equity. Full beneficial ownership of the stocks, coupled with appropriate voting rights is essential. Thus, stocks, the voting rights of which have been assigned or transferred to aliens cannot be considered held by Philippine citizens or Philippine nationals.
Individuals or juridical entities not meeting the aforementioned qualifications are considered as non-Philippine nationals.
Start of commercial operations
The date when a particular enterprise actually begins production of the product for commercial purposes or commercial harvest in the case of agricultural activities. In the case of service oriented activities, the date when the enterprise begins catering or servicing its clients on a commercial basis. In the case of export traders and service exporters, the date when the initial export shipment in commercial quantity has been made or initial performance of service as borne out by the appropriate supporting documents.
An individual or a firm who owns enough shares to be entitled to at least one (1) seat on the Board of Directors of a corporation, or in the case of a partnership, any partner.
Transferee of private land
A person to whom the ownership rights of private land is transferred through either voluntary or involuntary sale, devise or donation. Involuntary sales shall include sales on tax delinquency, foreclosures and executions of judgment.