Rule 8 (Manner of Making Allegations in Pleadings): 2019 Proposed Amendments to the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure

[See Introduction and Menu; Rule 6; Rule 7; Rule 8; Rule 9; Rule 10; Rule 11; Rule 12; Rule 13; Rule 14; Rule 15; Rule 16 (deleted); Rule 17; Rule 18; Rule 19; Rule 20; Rule 21; Rule 22; Rule 23; Rule 24; Rule 25; Rule 26; Rule 27; Rule 28; Rule 29; Rule 30; Rule 31; Rule 32; Rule 33; Rule 34; Rule 35; See also Summary on Affirmative Defenses and Manner of Making Allegations in Pleadings]



Section 1. In general. — Every pleading shall contain in a methodical and logical form, a plain, concise and direct statement of the ultimate facts, including the evidence on which the party pleading relies for his or her claim or defense, as the case may be. 

If a cause of action or defense relied on is based on law, the pertinent provisions thereof and their applicability to him or her shall be clearly and concisely stated. (1a)

Section 2. Alternative causes of action or defenses. — A party may set forth two or more statements of a claim or defense alternatively or hypothetically, either in one cause of action or defense or in separate causes of action or defenses. When two or more statements are made in the alternative and one of them if made independently would be sufficient, the pleading is not made insufficient by the insufficiency of one or more of the alternative statements. (2) 

Section 3. Conditions precedent. — In any pleading, a general averment of the performance or occurrence of all conditions precedent shall be sufficient. (3) 

Section 4. Capacity. — Facts showing the capacity of a party to sue or be sued or the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity or the legal existence of an organized association of persons that is made a party, must be averred. A party desiring to raise an issue as to the legal existence of any party or the capacity of any party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity, shall do so by specific denial, which shall include such supporting particulars as are peculiarly within the pleader’s knowledge. (4) 

Section 5. Fraud, mistake, condition of the mind. — In all averments of fraud or mistake, the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake must be stated with particularity. Malice, intent, knowledge, or other condition of the mind of a person may be averred generally. (5) 

Section 6. Judgment. — In pleading a judgment or decision of a domestic or foreign court, judicial or quasi-judicial tribunal, or of a board or officer, it is sufficient to aver the judgment or decision without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it. An authenticated copy of the judgment or decision shall be attached to the pleading. (6a) 

Section 7. Action or defense based on document. – Whenever an action or defense is based upon a written instrument or document, the substance of such instrument or document shall be set forth in the pleading, and the original or a copy thereof shall be attached to the pleading as an exhibit, which shall be deemed to be a part of the pleading. (7a) 

Section 8. How to contest such documents. – When an action or defense is founded upon a written instrument, or attached to the corresponding pleading as provided in the preceding section, the genuineness and due execution of the instrument shall be deemed admitted unless the adverse party, under oath specifically denies them, and sets forth what he or she claims to be the facts; but the requirement of an oath does not apply when the adverse party does not appear to be a party to the instrument or when compliance with an order for an inspection of the original instrument is refused. (8a) 

Section 9. Official document or act.- In pleading an official document or official act, it is sufficient to aver that the document was issued or the act was done in compliance with law. (9) 

Section 10. Specific denial. — A defendant must specify each material allegation of fact the truth of which he or she does not admit and, whenever practicable, shall set forth the substance of the matters upon which he or she relies to support his or her denial. Where a defendant desires to deny only a part of an averment, he or she shall specify so much of it as is true and material and shall deny only the remainder. Where a defendant is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of a material averment made to the complaint, he or she shall so state, and this shall have the effect of a denial. (10a) 

Section 11. Allegations not specifically denied deemed admitted. — Material averments in a pleading asserting a claim or claims, other than those as to the amount of unliquidated damages, shall be deemed admitted when not specifically denied. (11a) 

Section 12. Affirmative defenses. — (a) A defendant shall raise his or her affirmative defenses in his or her answer, which shall be limited to the reasons set forth under Section 5(b), Rule 6, and the following grounds: 

1. That the court has no jurisdiction over the person of the defending party; 

2. That venue is improperly laid; 

3. That the plaintiff has no legal capacity to sue;

4. That the pleading asserting the claim states no cause of action; and

5. That a condition precedent for filing the claim has not been complied with. 

(b) Failure to raise the affirmative defenses at the earliest opportunity shall constitute a waiver thereof. 

(c) The court shall motu proprio resolve the above affirmative defenses within thirty (30) calendar days from the filing of the answer.

(d) As to the other affirmative defenses under the first paragraph of Section 5(b), Rule 6, the court may conduct a summary hearing within fifteen (15) calendar days from the filing of the answer. Such affirmative defenses shall be resolved by the court within thirty (30) calendar days from the termination of the summary hearing.

(e) Affirmative defenses, if denied, shall not be the subject of a motion for reconsideration or petition for certiorari, prohibition or mandamus, but may be among the matters to be raised on appeal after a judgment on the merits. (n) 

Section 13. Striking out of pleading or matter contained therein. — Upon motion made by a party before responding to a pleading or, if no responsive pleading is permitted by these Rules, upon motion made by a party within twenty (20) calendar days after the service of the pleading upon him or her, or upon the court’s own initiative at any time, the court may order any pleading to be stricken out or that any sham or false, redundant, immaterial, impertinent, or scandalous matter be stricken out therefrom. (12a) 

[Rule 9. Effect of Failure to Plead]
P&L Law

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